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Encyclopedia of Microtonal Music Theory

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Joe Monzo

List of Works

[(c) 1998, 2010 by Joseph L. Monzo]

online Encyclopedia of Microtonal Music-Theory

musical compositions



articles & essays

musical arrangements, for concert band & jazz big band

computer MIDI sequences of music by others

topographic maps

paintings and drawings


Here is the complete list of every musical piece or sketch by Joe Monzo in a plain text file.

Below is a list of what I feel are my most significant pieces.

All of the sound examples are MIDI files which I sequenced on my computer. Some are quite good, some are pretty crappy, most fall somewhere in between. The quality of any individual file is pretty much reflective of how much time I've spent working on it. Some of the best ones I had made are "no longer with us", due to a damaged disk and further computer problems I've had.

There are several more just-intonation pieces and fragments which I had mapped onto my old Yamaha TG-77, which had tuning tables and which was stolen. I'm in the process of editing all of that stuff using pitch-bend, to make it conform to the General MIDI specs.

I wish to convert many of the 12-edo pieces listed here into just-intonation. I no longer feel satisfied with the sound of many of these, so I've never had a problem going back over an old piece and changing its tuning.

(The 4 minutes listed as the time on so many of the songs is just a rough, quick estimate. I was more concerned with getting the links to the sound files up first. I'll do the research later.)

37-edo Funk (2016) [37-edo]

for electric, bass, drumset

Afrikan Song (2016) [7-out-of-37-edo]

for saxophone, electric guitar, bass, percussion

The Kog Sisters (2014) [37-edo]

for 2 pianos, 2 organs, oboe, clarinet, strings and percussion
composed as "inspired by Hypatia and Bruta Kog", 2 of the muses in Kaz Maslanka's "Mapping of Polyaesthetics" project

I Still Believe In Love (2012) [12-edo]

for vocal, keyboard, electric guitar, bass, drumset

Ride This Train (2012) [12-edo]

for vocal, electric guitar, bass, drumset

Darks and Whites film score (2006)

for piano, english horn, flute, clarinet, string ensemble, guitar, rock organ, drum set

1. opening laundromat scene [15-edo then 19-edo] ... mp3
2. beach scene [22-edo] ... mp3
3. tunnel scene [36-edo] ... mp3
4. wedding video scene [22-edo] ... mp3
5. closing laundromat scene [15-edo] ... mp3

2001-10-15 (2001) [12edo]

for 2 trumpets, bass, and percussion

Cruisin' thru the Ruins (2001) [11-limit adaptive JI]

for vocals, theater orchestra and rock band
5 minutes
program notes and lyrics, mp3

2001-7-8 (2001) [7- and 11-limit adaptive JI]

for choir a capella
mp3 of 7-limit version

Solar System (August 2000) [JI]

computer realization, sonic mapping of planetary orbital periods
program notes, mp3, and MIDI-files

Hungarian Dance (September 1999) [12edo]

for piano

A Noiseless Patient Spider (1999) [mixed 144edo and JI]

for reciting voice
with harp, piano, synthesizer, 2 horns, cello & bass
7 minutes
text by Walt Whitman
program notes, mp3 of the instrumental parts, and score

Kuh-meah (April 1999) [13-prime-limit JI]

Acoustic guitar and percussion

Kraigian (1999) [13-prime-limit JI]

Acoustic guitar and percussion
mp3 of Kraigian

19-tone Samba (1998) [19-tET]

Acoustic guitar, bass, and percussion
program notes (with score, MIDI, and mp3), mp3

Stuck in Phoenix (September 1998) [12-tET]

Country music band

Beowulf (1998-present, in progress) [11-limit JI]

opera, for singers and orchestra
approx. 1 hour
mp3 of the opening

Hendrix Chord (1998) [12-edo & hi-prime just]

virtuoso tuning and finger-independence study
for electric guitar; 19 minutes
program notes and audio

Alternative Rock Chord (1998) [12-edo & just]

for improvising group and digital audio
a study in dominant-7th chord with various tunings of added-4th; 8 minutes
MIDI sequence of it

Come And Get Me Now (in progress 1997-) [just]

for intoning/singing voice and string quartet

24-Equal Tune (1994.10.6) [24-Eq]

Quarter-tone piece
or violin, 2 acoustic guitars, bass and drums; 2 minutes
program notes (with graphical score, mp3, and MIDI), mp3

Ragtime 1994 (1994) [12-edo], (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

piano; 1:13 minutes
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Theme to What's Happening (1993) [12-edo]

for background vocals and pop band; 4 minutes

In A Minute (1993.4.30) [12-edo], (1999) [JI version]

pop band; 3:21
program notes, mp3, and MIDI

Piña Colada (1993) [12-edo]

pop band; 4 minutes

1993-3-22 (1993) [12edo] (2000) [5-limit JI]

for accordion
program notes
mp3 of JI version

Incidental music to Invisible Haircut (1990-93) [19-L just]

for computer tape; 15 minutes

Opening Theme (1990)
program notes and audio

Bennie's Barber Shop (1993)

Wedding March (1992) [12-edo]

digital recording; 4 minutes
(with a sly opening sample from Mahler's 6th)
2 versions:
classical -- for harp, strings, electric bass, & piano
funk -- for pop band (mp3)

As Long As We Live (July 1992) [12-edo]

pop band; 2:46
mp3 of 12edo version

Prince Bowie (1992) [12-edo]

pop band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence of an excerpt

Happy Ending For The Devil (1992) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 2:23
lyrics and mp3, mp3

One-Way Street (1992) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes
program notes, lyrics, mp3 of last 2 verses & guitar solo

3 Plus 4 (1992) [12-edo version], (1999) [13-limit JI version]

fusion jazz band; 5:20
(solos on recording by Marc Johnson)

Altho it's unambitious and unpretentious, I think this is the best thing I've written so far.

4th Night in Rio (1992) [12-edo]

latin band; 1:59
MIDI file

Triplet Break-Up (1991) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence

Half-Step Bass (1991.11.28) [12-edo]

pop band; 4 minutes

Nigger Lover (1991-93) [this needs a more complex tuning]

for rapping voice and computer tape; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence

Thinking of Frank Emerson (1991) [12-edo]

fusion-jazz band; 1:52
MIDI sequence

3rd Night in Rio (1991) [12-edo]

latin band; 1:52
MIDI sequence

2nd Night in Rio (1991) [12-edo]

latin band; 3:00
MIDI sequence

1991-9-2 (1991) [12edo]

for piano, bass, and percussion

Ah Mariah (1991) [12-edo]

for flute, bass, and electric piano; 4 minutes

1st Night in Rio (1991) [12-edo]

latin band; 3:00
MIDI sequence

I'm in Love (1991) [12-edo, with microtones in guitar solo]

for singing voices and rock band; 5:20

Yvonne (1990) [12-edo]

for electric piano and strings; 2:00

Spooky (1990) [12-edo]

fusion jazz band; 1:59
MIDI sequence

Wedge of Mind (1990) [12-edo]

for computer tape; 8 minutes

Yvonne (1990) [12-edo], (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

latin band; 1:20
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Samba for Suzee (1990) [12-edo]

latin band; 4:10
MIDI sequence

M.S.B. (1990.9.28) [12-tET version], (2000) [JI version]

pop band; 3:12
MIDI sequence

6 x 3 x 3 (1989.11.5) [12-edo]

fusion jazz band; 4 minutes

Carried Away (1989) [12-edo], (1991) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

for voice and soul band; 4:00
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Salsa 1 (1987) [12-edo]

latin band; 3 minutes
MIDI sequence

Salsa 2 (1987) [12-edo]

latin band; 3 minutes
MIDI sequence

Summertime Rag (1986) [12-edo]

for piano; 4:38
MIDI sequence

Whenever (1986) [12-edo]

for singing voice and pop band; 4 minutes
read the lyrics
MIDI sequence of it

Springtime Rag (1986) [12-edo], (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

for piano; 4 minutes
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Latin Tune (1986) [12-edo]

latin band; 1:50
MIDI sequence of an excerpt

Thankful for the Little Things (1986) [12-edo]

for voices and rock band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence

I've Got A Feeling About You (1986) [12-edo]

for singing voice and jazz band; 4 minutes
read the lyrics

Etude in F# (1985) [12-edo], (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

for piano; 2:12
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Again (1985) [12-edo]

for singing voice and small ensemble; 4:29
words by Chris Tisdale
MIDI sequence of it

Blue Valentine (1985) [12-edo]

for singing voice and small ensemble; 2:18
words by Chris Tisdale
MIDI sequence of it

1985 Delay (1985, 1998) [12-edo]

for piano, shakuhachi, bassoon, and drums; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence of an excerpt

So Ultraconservative (1985) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes
lyrics and MIDI, mp3

Your Love Will Take Me (1985) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes

The Why Did They Close The Frank S. Farley Service Plaza On Saturday Night Blues
(1985) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes
read the lyrics

Fusion 1984 (October 1984)

for pop-jazz band
MIDI sequence

Ghosts From The Season Before (September 1984) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes
words by Chris Wittmann
read the lyrics

I'll Tell You I Love You (1984) [12-edo]

for singing voice and pop band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence

Symphony 5 (originally 2 Movements) (1984) [12-edo]

for orchestra; 12 minutes

Lynn (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes

Finding Fragments (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and pop band; 4 minutes
program notes, lyrics, mp3

Song of the Seagull (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and acoustic guitar; 4 minutes

Deep Inside (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and acoustic guitar; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence

Labor Day (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes
read the lyrics

On The Bus (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 3:05
mp3 with computer vocals for first verse
MIDI sequence
read the lyrics

Down and Out (1983) [12-edo] (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI version]

for singing voice and rock band; 4:43
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

So Hard To Say Goodbye (1983) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4:26
read the lyrics

You're My Girl (1982) [12-edo]

for singing voice and acoustic guitar; 4 minutes

For Donna (June 1982) [12-edo]

for solo classical guitar; 1:10

Don't Drop It On Me (1982) [12-edo]

blues, for singing voice and acoustic guitar; 4 minutes
read the lyrics

Junkmail (1982) [12-edo]

for singing voice and heavy-metal band; 3:32
lyrics and MIDI-file

Edward (1982) [12-edo version], (2000) [5-limit JI version]

for singing voice, harpsichord, recorders, oboes; 4 minutes
mp3 of JI version

Waltz (1982, completed 1986) [12-edo]

for piano; 4 minutes

My Dream (1981) [12-edo]

for singing voice and heavy-metal band; 4 minutes

Canned Food (1981) [12-edo]

for singing voice and rock band; 4 minutes

L. A. Tango (1981) [12-edo] (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

for latin band; 4 minutes
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Movie Opening (originally Triple Concerto) (1981-83) [12-edo, being converted to just]

for alto sax & orchestra; 0:49
12edo MIDI sequence of the opening
mp3 of the opening, in 7-limit adaptive-JI

Saturday Afternoon Rag (1981) [12-edo]

for piano; 4 minutes

Springtime Meditation (1981)
afternoon and sunset at Great Kills Harbor
(1981) [12-edo]

for orchestra; 8 minutes

String Trio (1981) [12-edo, with some quarter-tones]

for violin, viola, cello; 15 minutes
program notes and MIDI sequence
updated 2001.4.1

Outlets (1981) [12-edo]

for voice and rock band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence of an excerpt

Modern Conveniences (1981) [12-edo]

for voice and rock band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence of an excerpt

What's Wrong (1981) [12-edo]

for voice and punk rock band; 3 minutes

I Wanna Fuck (1981) [12-edo, but with high distortion]

for voice and punk rock band; 3 minutes

Romeo's Death (1980) [12-edo, being converted to just]

for baritone voice, clarinet, cello, bass trombone and percussion;
8 minutes
text after Shakespeare
MIDI sequence and text of it [12-edo]

Gavotte (1980.5.9) [12-edo or meantone] (2002.3.15) [5-limit JI]

for piano; 3:02
mp3 of the JI version

Saraband (1980) [12-edo or meantone] (unfinished)

for piano; 1:39
MIDI sequence of it

Invention (1980) [12-edo or meantone] (unfinished)

for piano; 1:30
MIDI sequence of it

9-F (1980, unfinished) [12-edo]

for small orchestra; 12 minutes
MIDI sequence of the ending

Preludes II (1980) [just]

for soprano voice and violin; 10 minutes
text by T. S. Eliot

Sonnet 18 (1980) [12-edo]

for soprano voice and piano; 1:18
text after Shakespeare
text and MIDI-file

My Universe (1980) [12-edo, with high distortion]

for voice and punk rock band; 4 minutes
MIDI sequence of it

Woodwind Trio (1979) [12-edo]

for clarinet, oboe, and bassoon; 8 minutes

Forms for Brass Trio (1979) [12-edo]

for French horn, trumpet, and trombone; 5 minutes

Mexican Dance (1979) [12-edo]

for clarinet and string ensemble; 4 minutes

Preludes I (1979) [12-edo]

for soprano voice, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
8 minutes
text by T. S. Eliot

Sonatina (1978) [12-edo]

for piano, 3 movements; 6:14
MIDI sequence

Waltz No. 1 (1978) [12-edo]

for piano; 1:30 minutes
MIDI sequence

Langsam Stuck (1977) [12-edo]

for orchestra; 3:21
MIDI sequence

1st String Quartet (1977, revised 1994) [12-edo] (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

for 2 violins, viola, and cello; 2:49 minutes
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Gavotte (1977) [12-edo]

for small orchestra; 4 minutes

Scherzo (1977) [12-edo]

for orchestra; 5 minutes

12 Minuets (1977) [12-edo]

for piano; 12 minutes
MIDI sequence

8 Minuets (1976-77) [12-edo]

for piano; 8 minutes
MIDI sequence

Symphony 3 (1976/1981, unfinished) [12-edo]

for orchestra

Symphony 2 (1976/1980/1994) [12-edo], (2001) [7-limit adaptive-JI]

for 2 oboes, 2 horns, and strings; 10:27 minutes
mp3 of adaptive-JI version

Symphony 1 (1976) [12-edo]

for small orchestra; 10 minutes

Prelude (1975) [12-edo]

for piano; 1 minute


  • Tonescape microtonal music sequencer (formerly called "JustMusic")

  • micro.CAL, my microtonal CAL program for CakewalkTM

  • Prime-ET, an ExcelTM spreadsheet that calculates ratios and ET-degrees and compares them.


  • Searching for Schoenberg's Pantonality (2001-in progress 2010)

  • Mahler 7th/1: an analytical reduction score, and speculations on the "hidden program", of the first movement of Gustav Mahler's Seventh Symphony (1988-2004)

  • JustMusic: A New Harmony - Representing Pitch as Prime Series (1993-98)

    Articles and essays

  • Intonation of the valve trumpet (2003)

  • Ramos's divisions of the monochord (2003)

  • Zarlino's description of 2/7-comma meantone (2003)

  • Vicentino's adaptive-JI of 1555 (2002)

  • Eivind Groven's Schismatic Temperament (2002)

  • An Examination of Partch's The Intruder (2002)

  • Simplified sexagesimal approximation to 12edo (2002)

  • Lattice Diagrams Comparing Rational Implications of Various Meantone Chains

  • Ganassi's Rational Well-Temperament. www (2001)

  • Mozart's Tuning: a 20-tone subset of 55-EDO. www (2001)

  • An Examination of Partch's Explanation of ETs (2001)

  • A Gentle Introduction to the MIDI Tuning Specification. www (2001)

  • Autumn Leaves in Blackjack Tuning. www (2001)

  • The Blackjack Scale. www (2001)

  • A 13-tone 7...17-limit scale of Pat Pagano and David Beardsley. www (2001)

  • A New Reconstruction of the Hurrian Hymn. www (2000)

  • Speculations on Sumerian tuning. www (2000)

  • An Examination of Fox-Strangways and Partch on JI modulation. www (2000)

  • The Measurement of Aristoxenus's Divisions of the Tetrachord. www (1999, 2000)

  • On Fabio Colonna's Sambuca Tuning. www (1999)

  • A Summary of W. S. B. Woolhouse's Essay on musical intervals. www (1999)

  • Tutorial on Ancient Greek Tetrachord-theory. www (1999)

  • A stretched-'octave' scale of Charles Ives. www (1999)

  • Chronological List of Works of Alois Hába. www (1999)

  • English translation of Hába's article Schoenberg and the further possibilities of music-development. www (1999)

  • English translation of the first few chapters of Horst Weber's biography of Zemlinsky(1999)

  • A Century of New Music in Vienna, a chronology of Mahler, Schoenberg, Webern, and the birth of atonality. www (1999)

  • review of the 1999 AFMM Microthon!. Juxtaposition Ezine(1999)

  • English translation of Patrice Bailhache's Music translated into Mathematics: Leonhard Euler

  • Historical Arab Lute Frettings. www (1999)

  • Charts of pitches on Poole's keyboard. www (1999)

  • Mathematical Diagrams of Equal-Tempered Guitar Fingerboards. www (1998)

  • 5-Limit Implications of Ancient Indian Tuning. www (1998)

  • A Microtonal Analysis of Robert Johnson's Drunken Hearted Man. www (1998)

  • Mathematical Diagram of John Dowland's Lute Fretting. www (1998)

  • review of The Last Laugh, by Dean Drummond. Juxtaposition Ezine (1998)

  • review of When Mozart was a Nine-Year-Old, by the SoHo Baroque Opera. Juxtaposition Ezine(1998)

  • Speculations on Marchetto of Padua's "Fifth-Tones". www (1997-98)

  • JustMusic Prime-Factor Notation. www (1997)

  • An Examination of a Possible 5-Limit System of Boethius. unpublished (1997)

  • A New Look at the Musica Enchiriadis. unpublished (1996-97)

  • A Metrical Analysis and Re-notation
    of Webern's Variations for Piano, 1st movement
    . (1994) www (1998)

  • Similarities Between Partch and Schoenberg
    as Originators of New Harmonic Principles. unpublished (1988)

    Musical Arrangements

    For Concert Band

    Excerpts from Mahler's 1st Symphony (1979)

    For Jazz Big Band

    Johnny Green, Out of Nowhere (1979) - listen to excerpts
    George Harrison, Something (1979)
    Billy Strayhorn, Take The A-Train (1979)
    Hoagy Carmichael, Skylark (1979)
    Hoagy Carmichael, I Get Along Without You Very Well (1978)
    Heyman & Buesse, My Silent Love (1978)
    George Shearing, Lullaby of Birdland (1978)
    Robin & Ranger, June in January (1978)
    Kahn & Donaldson, Love Me or Leave Me (1978)
    Fain, Kahal, & Norman, When I Take My Sugar To Tea (1978)
    Rodgers & Hart, With A Song In My Heart (1978)

    MIDI sequences of music by others

    This way I get to (sort of) play out my fantasy of being a conductor.
    The dates are those of my sequencing (not of the original composition).
    Most of these are not microtonal - yet.

    Mahler, 7th Symphony, 1st movement (1988-98)

    Cole Porter, Just One Of Those Things, voice/piano version of arrangement from Kiri Te Kanawa's CD (2003)

    Beatles, Yellow Submarine (2002)

    George Duke, Theme from 'Good Times' TV show (1999)

      Amazingly, the unbelievably complex MIDI-file produces simulations of vowel formants, so that if you understand English, you can hear the words being "sung"! -- There are no voices here, just an orchestra of ocarinas!

        Good Times, anytime you meet a payment, Good Times, anytime you meet a friend
        Good Times, anytime you're out from under, not gettin' hassled, not gettin' hustled
        Keepin' your head above water, making a wave when you can
        Temporary lay-offs, Good Times, easy credit rip-offs, Good Times
        Scratching and survivin', Good Times, hanging in a chow line, Good Times
        Ain't we lucky we got 'em?, Good Times!

    Ben Johnston, 8th Quartet, 2nd movement. (1999)

    Mahler, Piano Quartet in A-minor, 1st (and only) movement. (1999)

    Beatles, Glass Onion (1999)

      I was discussing re-doing a Beatles song in 22-ET with Paul Erlich and he suggested this one. This 12-tET version turned out pretty good.

      Here's the 22-tET version (2000).

    Mahler, Das Lied von der Erde, last part of der Abschied (1998)

      one of my very best MIDI files

    Robert Johnson, Drunken Hearted Man, opening & 1st verse (1998)

    Webern, Vorfruhling [pre-Opus 1 song] (1998)

    Webern, Aufblick [pre-Opus 1 song, instrumental arrangement by Monzo] (1998)

    Webern, Im Sommerwind [first half] (1998)

    Dvorák, "New World" Symphony, 4th movement (1998)

    Tchaikovsky, 4th Symphony, 4th movement (1998) - listen to ending

    Tchaikovsky, 5th Symphony, coda of 4th movement (1998)

    Tchaikovsky, 6th Symphony, 3rd and 4th movements (1998)

    Korngold, Sinfonietta, excerpts from 1st & 2nd movements (1992-98)

      full-blown Hollywood movie music from a 15-year old! check it out

    B. B. King, Sweet Little Angel, opening guitar solo (1992-98)

      microtonalized even a bit further by me

    Robert Johnson, Crossroads Blues, opening & 1st verse (1992-98)
    Beatles, Savoy Truffle (1997)
    Beatles, Yer Blues (1997)
    Webern, 6 Pieces for Orchestra, op. 6, 1st piece (1994)

    Webern, Variations for Piano, op. 27, 1st movement (1994)

    Beethoven, Piano Sonata No. 6, 1st movement (1993)
    Lewis Benzon, 95th Psalm (1992)
    Felix Weingartner, 2nd Symphony, excerpts (1991)
    Orlando Lassus, Tristis Est Anima Mea (1991)
    The Band, King Harvest (1991)
    Bruce Springsteen, Born To Run,without vocal part excerpt (1991)
    Bruce Springsteen, 10th Avenue Freeze-Out, without vocal part (1991)
    Scott Joplin, Gladiolus Rag (1991)
    Joseph Lamb, Sensation Rag (1991)
    Rossini, William Tell Overture, last section (1990)
    Bach, C#m Prelude & Fugue Well-Tempered Klavier book 1 (1989)
    Bach, Sarabande from English Suite No. 6 (1989)
    Beethoven, String Quartet (C#m), op. 131, 1st movement (1989)
    Beethoven, 3rd Symphony ("Eroica"), 1st movement (1989)
    Machaut, Messe de Nostre Dame, Sanctus (1989)

    Topographic Maps

    Northwest Philadelphia, watercolor on paper (1995)
    Montmartre, computer-generated, ink on paper (1996)
    San Diego, computer-generated, ink on paper (in progress, 2000) (the version in this link is reduced to about 25% normal size)

    Paintings and Drawings

    Healing [with Claudia Ximena], computer-generated, ink on paper (1998)
    Coffee Stain, coffee on paper (1987)
    How To Find Your Way Around Philadelphia, acrylic on cotton T-shirt (1987)
    No Anchovies, acrylic on inside of cardboard pizza box (1986)
    View from my bedroom window, acrylic on cotton T-shirt (1986)
    Island off the coast of Antarctica, oil on canvas (1982)
    Brooke Shields, pencil on paper (1982)
    Portrait of Dona, pastel on paper (1980)
    Jaclyn Smith, pencil on paper (1979)
    Scenes from Michaelangelo's Sistine Chapel, pencil on paper (1976)

    Jesus and Mary
    close-up of Mary
    Angel Blowing a Horn
    The Damned
    Two Locomotives, pencil on paper (1976)
    Sunset, watercolor on paper (1975)